Giachino, C. et al., Development

Adult neurogenesis is tightly regulated through the interaction of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) with their niche. Neurotransmitters, including GABA activation of GABAA receptor ion channels, are important niche signals. We show that adult mouse hippocampal NSCs and their progeny express metabotropic GABAB receptors. Our data indicate that signaling through GABAB receptors is an inhibitor of adult neurogenesis.

Giachino, C. Taylor, V., Front Neurosci. 2014

Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are perceived as a homogeneous population of cells that divide infrequently and are capable of multi-lineage differentiation. However, recent data revealed that independent stem cell lineages act in parallel to maintain neurogenesis and provide a cellular source for tissue repair. In addition, even within the same lineage, the stem and progenitor cells are strikingly heterogeneous including NSCs that are dormant or mitotically active...

Giachino, C. et al., Stem Cells

Loss of BLBP(+) stem/progenitor cells correlates with reduced neurogenesis in aging rodents and postnatal humans. These findings of molecular heterogeneity and proliferative differences subdivide the NSC population and have implications for neurogenesis in the forebrain of mammals during aging.

Rolando, C. et al., Curr Top Dev Biol.

The formation of the hippocampus is generated during embryonic development, but most neurons within the structure are produced after birth. The hippocampus is a primary region of neurogenesis within the adult mammalian brain. Adult-born neurons have to integrate into the established neural circuitry throughout life.

Basak, O. et. al, J Neurosci.

The adult mammalian forebrain contains neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) that generate neurons throughout life. As in other somatic stem cell systems, NSCs are proposed to be predominantly quiescent and proliferate only sporadically to produce more committed progeny. However, quiescence has recently been shown not to be an essential criterion for stem cells. It is not known whether NSCs show differences in molecular dependence based on their proliferation state. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mouse brain has a remarkable capacity for repair by activation of NSCs.

Knuckles, P. et. al, Nat Neurosci.

Temporal regulation of embryonic neurogenesis is controlled by hypostable transcription factors. The mechanism of the process is unclear. Here we show that the RNase III Drosha and DGCR8 (also known as Pasha), key components of the microRNA (miRNA) microprocessor, have important functions in mouse neurogenesis. Loss of microprocessor in forebrain neural progenitors resulted in a loss of stem cell character and precocious differentiation whereas Dicer deficiency did not. Drosha negatively regulated expression of the transcription factors Neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) and NeuroD1 whereas forced Ngn2 expression phenocopied the loss of Drosha.

Lugert, S, et. al, Nat Commun.

Neural stem/progenitor cells generate neurons in the adult hippocampus. Neural stem cells produce transient intermediate progenitors (type-2 cells), which generate neuroblasts (type-3 cells) that exit the cell cycle, and differentiate into neurons. The precise dynamics of neuron production from the neural stem cells remains controversial. Here we lineage trace Notch-dependent neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus and show that over 7-21 days, the progeny of the neural stem cells progress through an Ascl1(high) intermediate stage (type-2a) to neuroblasts...

Lugert, S. et. al, Cell Stem Cell.

New neurons are generated in the adult hippocampus throughout life by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), and neurogenesis is a plastic process responsive to external stimuli. We show that canonical Notch signaling through RBP-J is required for hippocampal neurogenesis. Notch signaling distinguishes morphologically distinct Sox2(+) NSCs, and within these pools subpopulations can shuttle between mitotically active or quiescent. Radial and horizontal NSCs respond selectively to neurogenic stimuli. Physical exercise activates the quiescent radial population whereas epileptic seizures induce expansion of the horizontal NSC pool...